Four Winds: Why are Asian MMOs monetized the way they are?


Welcome to Four Winds, Massively OP’s newest column, dedicated to Asian MMOs and the culture around it. As the resident Black Desert columnist, I’m a fan of the game as well as the subgenre it belongs to. There’s something special about Asian MMOs, and I’m eager to explore and uncover what that special sauce is through deep dives, first impressions, and insight on Asian MMOs and the gamers who love them.

I’ve got a passion for Eastern MMORPGs. They just click with me, and no it’s not because I’m Asian. While I was born in the Philippines, I grew up in America. I don’t have any say on people who actually lived and grew up in an Asian country. I specifically like two things: the grind, and jiggle physics a certain “je ne se quoi” unique to these games.

But that doesn’t mean I’m a sucker. I will only sink time when the game in question is well-designed. A good MMORPG is very difficult to design, and I’ve played many that are just plain bad. So it bothers me when people associate bad game design and predatory business practices with this subgenre as “something Asian gamers like” – never mind that “Asian” itself is a loaded term. It’s a negative stereotype, and for this first edition of Four Winds, I aim to dismantle and hopefully reframe this flawed narrative.

Everyone loves well-designed games

I want to stipulate one thing before we begin: Everyone loves well-designed games. It doesn’t matter where the game was developed. A good game is a good game. Ultima Online’s impact on the genre didn’t just set a standard in American MMORPG game design; it established a formula that everyone can and often did follow. Lineage shows that a well-designed grind exists. Black Desert is finally bridging the gap between Korean MMORPG design and mainstream European and North American tastes. And Genshin Impact’s worldwide success proves that a high-quality game can also have a highly profitable monetization method.

When a game is just plain good, it usually becomes more popular and profitable. Sure, there will be detractors. There will always be people who will find BDO’s monetization predatory, and it’s totally fine to be guarded about it, since plenty of MMORPGs have succeeded without that model and there are plenty of games from all genres that show just how low some companies would go to make a buck. It’s completely understandable to maintain a healthy skepticism for any game in this era of excessive monetization.

What isn’t OK is when what looks to be acceptance of those same practices is written off as part of a particular group’s culture. It’s a common question seen on various MMO forums and communities – “why do Asians like pay-to-win so much?” The answers usually end up being some variation of “it’s part of their culture.”

That’s not OK, and moreover, it’s wrong. It’s an outdated perception that Asian cultures (and thus gaming habits) do and accept the opposite of their peers in Europe and the Americas. Nobody likes it when a game leans too far into pay-to-win territory. And just as a good game is good everywhere, bad business practices are bad everywhere.

Getting lost in translation

I’m not trying to make anyone feel guilty. It’s ironic how disconnected gamers from different countries are from each other, but there’s a very real divide. There are two major barriers: language and service. Even with the unprecedented amount of information available through the internet, there are still things we can’t find online. Despite Google’s dominance in America, that’s not the case elsewhere. Kakao has grown to be one of the largest companies in Korea, while Tencent dominates China’s internet scene with WeChat.

Different countries use different search engines, visit different forums, and use different chat programs. I have no reason to use Kakaotalk when all my friends are on Discord. I will watch my videos on YouTube, not NicoNicoDouga. And while I don’t personally use it, Reddit is a major source of information for many English speakers.

And this is huge. While Reddit has been instrumental in putting information in one place, it’s only really used by English speakers. If a person in Korea has a question about Lost Ark, they would most likely use DCinside because that’s the closest thing to it in Korea.

So whenever someone asks, “why do Asians like pay-to-win” on Reddit, any answer will naturally be imperfect information. Most of the answers will be secondhand. The answers will most likely come from someone who doesn’t live there and probably doesn’t have access to (or didn’t bother to look for) information that can answer the question better. Unless someone who genuinely grew up and lived in Korea or China with a deep knowledge of MMORPGs and the industry goes to Reddit to explicitly address the question every time it comes up, we’re usually left with just misguided speculation.

Of course, if we actually focus on how the games are different from region to region rather than how people are different, the answer suddenly becomes painfully obvious.

Games in different regions are monetized differently

Think back to the first MMO you’ve played. Where were you? It probably wasn’t at a PC bang. One of the most distinct features of Asian gaming, especially in Korea, has traditionally been the PC cafe. Heck, it’s been the most popular way to use a computer period. It’s a place with a bunch of high-end computers where people can do whatever they need to do on a computer, especially gaming. Everyone from all walks of life goes there. It’s a legitimate cultural pastime – and a cheap one at that, for around $2 an hour. And just as Costco’s profit comes from the membership and not its sales, the same applies to these PC cafes, which make their money from memberships and special events.

Here in the United States, League of Legends players will need to buy champions with money or unlock them over time. But overseas, some PC cafes provide memberships that allow players full access to the game’s complete roster. In Black Desert, players here in the United States need to build an increased enchantment success through a method called failstacking, which is a complicated process that involves switching characters, and increasing the number by forcefully failing other enhancements. It took me an entire article to explain how it worked. But PC cafes that have special deals with Pearl Abyss that actually award players these failstacks by simply AFK lifeskilling while they’re at their favorite PC bang! I’m not saying that failstacking doesn’t happen in Korean servers, but Korean players certainly have some far more lucrative (and straightforward) alternatives. Of course, giving those special incentives to members isn’t free; Pearl Abyss and Riot Games take a cut of the profit.

The simple answer is that many games built in Asian countries are designed from the start to be played in PC bangs. Companies like Pearl Abyss and Kakao make their money by taking a cut of the PC cafe’s profits for these special benefits. The gaming ecosystem is completely different. Because European and U.S. players primarily play from home, that system doesn’t work as well. And finding that sweet spot between making the game profitable, rewarding, and not an overt money grab is a challenge where solutions are just now starting to pop up.

Hopefully this article helps reframe the discussion around how Asian MMOs are monetized and why developers make the choices they do. But don’t mistake me: I’m not excusing every single MMO. There are a ton of bad Eastern MMOs out there. And some are really terrible money grabs, and yes there’s always going to be a global demographic that loves that stuff. But the people who play those games don’t define an entire continent of humans or one single homogenous culture, let alone gaming culture.

I’m super optimistic about this upcoming decade in MMOs with Lost Ark, Elyon, and Plan 8 on the horizon. There are some really good MMOs coming out of Asia, many of which can be appealing for everyone. It’d be a shame if we let antique stereotypes get in the way.

The four wind tiles in Mahjong open all sorts of winning combinations for players of this ancient game – and the “Asian” MMO subgenre is just as varied as the many rulesets in Mahjong. Join Massively OP’s Carlo Lacsina here in our Four Winds column as he covers the diverse assembly of MMOs imported from the East!

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Why “Four Winds” I’m missing the reference there? Nice article by the way, an enjoyable, informative read.

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I’m a little late on the response, but the explanation is at the bottom of the article:

“The four wind tiles in Mahjong open all sorts of winning combinations for players of this ancient game – and the “Asian” MMO subgenre is just as varied as the many rulesets in Mahjong. Join Massively OP’s Carlo Lacsina here in our Four Winds column as he covers the diverse assembly of MMOs imported from the East!”

David Goodman

I think it may be more possible that, because gaming in Eastern countries started out predominently in PC Bangs (really wish those took off in the US better, Cyber Cafes never got to the same level; it sounds fun, but i also grew up in the middle of nowhere so I wouldn’t have had access to them anyway…), the moneitziation models employed by the gaming developers evolved around that as a baseline.

Paying for conveniences because you were paying by the hour, or paying to have all of the characters unlocked, simply isn’t as big of a deal when you do not do your gaming at home.

And you go from paying for little conveniences, to paying for big ones… I mean, if you’re going to pay to have the characters unlocked, how about an XP boost so leveling isn’t as much of a grind? You want to get to the fun stuff while you’re out and in a social environment. You’re chatting with people presumably, showing off what you’re doing, and you don’t want to show off killing 14,000 boars or whatever the regional equivilent is.

.. annnnd then corporations ruined it for everyone. Once gaming became popular (*cough* profitable), it was taken over. Make the game GRINDIER, and then sell you the solution to it; make inventory management deliberately painful, and sell you the solution to it. Monetization essentially evolved into a state where a dev would deliberately program in a problem so that they could then sell you the fix.

And that last part, that isn’t region-specific. That pretty much happened everywhere.

The truth of the matter is that they don’t have any more say in how the games developed by Eastern companies are created than we do about whatever the hell EA or Activision is butchering, and it’s all done with the primary goal of making money first. If you happen to have fun with it… try to find some way to make money off of that, too.

Vincent Clark

I still remember when I tried to get a friend of mine to try FFXIV and it was a bit “too Asian” according to him.

I mean, sure…aesthetically, it’s different from say…LotRO, but…I don’t really know what else to say about that.

Chris Walker

I don’t mind the mechanics behind Asian-syle MMOs at all — they’re a good change of pace imo. What I really don’t like is the art style. Anything that hints at loli / cutesy / having “adults” look like children is a huge turn off for me. I realize how subjective that is, and wish those types of MMOs all the best.


Asian mmos and Lotro

Vanquesse V

Not sure why, but I wasn’t expecting this much casual racism in the comments.


Culture and art style taste aside.. However you twist it, monetization is an integral part of the game design; so when you do f2p, skip2win, pay2win, barbiedoll economics or whatever you want to call it, that WILL directly create a certain kind of game. And that is why “Asian” games have a certain reputation.

Another difference for mmorpgs specifically is that “Asian” games tend to be more action focused and shallow (simple mechanics) while there is a bigger western audience the prefer more depth, more world feel .. often born from how tabletop or books create an alternative reality, and that is what (some) are looking for in a mmorpg – I think there is a cultural difference in players there.

Personally, there are just more ways an “Asian” mmo can fail to attract me. First is art style – I can’t deal with much manga, loli, cutesy style, but I do like some of the more naturalistic but heavy stylized chineese games.
Then there is depth – I just don’t play many games that doesn’t have great depth, and if they don’t they need to be excellent at what they Obviously depth goes hand in hand with monetization.
Also what I find very important in mmorpgs specifically (I have completely different requirements for other types of games) is that you earn everything in the game by playing the game; and this clashes hard with all shop based monetization.


Bad but prevalent monetization practices aren’t a matter of what players like, but rather of what they tolerate. And culture certainly changes which practices we find tolerable despite being bad or even abusive.

Party Bard

Just leaving a comment to say — I really enjoyed this article, and I’m looking forward to the column. Thanks!

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Ditto for me! This is a really interesting topic.

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I specifically like two things: the grind, and jiggle physics
a certain “je ne se quoi” unique to these games.

A refined gentleman of culture and sophistication, I see. I knew there were more reasons I liked you, Carlo : P


The pigtails have bounce physics though, to which I like to think is one up on jiggle ones… o.O


Fortnight, CoD:Warzone, WoW, Genshin Impact, ESO…there are many monetization models in gaming and the industry will only get more creative.

Eastern v Western models? How China lets its people game is completely different from the rest of the world. I don’t see much difference between Japan and Europe and the US…there is more difference with Russia and South Korea.

Yes globalization is diluting cultural differences but we can continue to respect differences and recognize sometimes games transcend boundaries.
Tetris, WoW, Zelda, Genshin.

I look forward to whatever quality mmorpg is offered if I can respect its pay model. It’s a dying genre…I’ll take what I can get.